Sunday December 25, 2022
Catholic or protestant : Since pre-historic times in Europe, festivities (bonfires, offrerings) were marking the beginning of longer hours of daylight with fires and ritual. The Roman festival of Saturnalia lasted several days in December (gambling and offerings). Germanic tribes also celebrated mid-winter (drinking and rituals). The Bulgarian (with Koleduvane) and the Polish (with Gwiazdka) perpetuate this tradition. Jesus of Nazareth was probably born in springtime (Reformists favour autumn). But in the 4th century, December 25th was chosen for the celebration of his birth by Pope Julius I (Bishop Liberus is also mentioned in 354 A.D.). Thus, a Christian element was introduced in the long-established mid-winter festivals. Before 1582, the Papal States and other Italian city states celebrated New Years Day on Christmas Day.
Christmas Day (forwarded to Tuesday)
Tuesday December 27, 2022
Catholic or protestant : Due to historical reasons, Christmas this year is celebrated AFTER Boxing day
New Year's Day
Sunday January 1, 2023
Secular holiday : The world's most widely celebrated holiday, New Years was set on January 1 by Julius Caesar because that was the date the Roman consuls took over their duties. Paid holiday when falling on Saturday or Sunday
New Year's Day (moved forward to Monday)
Monday January 2, 2023
Secular holiday : The world's most widely celebrated holiday, New Years was set on January 1 by Julius Caesar because that was the date the Roman consuls took over their duties.
Tuesday January 31, 2023
Secular holiday : Granted by Australia in 1968
Friday April 7, 2023
Catholic or protestant : The First Council of Nicaea (a gathering of bishops in the early days of Christianity) wanted to find a day to commemorate the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ. This commemoration had to be linked to Jewish holiday traditions, since the last supper of Christ was believed to be a Jewish Passover meal. But the Jewish calendar is based on lunar and solar cycles, so the Easter celebration had to follow the same calendar.
Sunday April 9, 2023
Catholic or protestant : Not a paid holiday
Monday April 10, 2023
Catholic or protestant : In the year 325, the Council of Nicée determined a date fo Easter. Full Moon would fall the 14th day of a moon month (1). Easter would be marked by the dominical letter(2)and the epactus(3). With the establishment of the equinox ne variatur on March 21, algorithms where elaborated to attribuate a date for Easter whatever the year.
Time between two consecutive new moons: 20 days 12 hours 44 minutes 2.8 - Gives a letter code for the year's calendar Age of the moon on January 1st, minus one unity, 0 being the new moon's age.
Tuesday April 11, 2023
Secular holiday :
Wednesday May 17, 2023
Secular holiday : Adopted in 1968 (republic with a parliamentary system).